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It is safe to say that cost considerations have less weight than in NSPSs. Therefore, theoretically, the LAER stan- dard is the strictest among the various technology-based stand?

It is to be determined class-by-class or category-by- category of sources. The statute assumes that a certain variation among the states in determining LAER standards will occur.

The statutory requirement that LAER deter- minations by the states may not be less stringent than the federal NSPSs limits the discretion of the states.

In practice, the LAER standards do not set absolute emission limitations; normally, the sources are subject to speci- fied emission rates per unit of production or time.

Second, the applicant must demonstrate that all other sta- tionary sources owned or operated by the applicant or by any entity controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the applicant within the same state are sub- ject to emission limitations and are in compliance with all applicable regulations or orders.

Where a source is in delay with its abatement program, the SIP must be revised in order to formally incorporate a re- vised timetable for compliance, or EPA must have approved the new schedule in a delayed compliance order.

Mere ap- proval by the state agency is not sufficient. Third, a permit may be granted only if the applicable 4 01 SIP "is being carried out".

The requirement means that there must be actual "reason- able further progress" towards achieving the NAAQSs with- in the statutory deadline. Where a revised SIP has been unrealistic or is not enforced with sufficient vigor, it may be difficult to demonstrate that the SIP is being carried out.

For meeting this requirement, the states have the choice between two options: - growth allowance, or - offset. To make room for additional development, the states can create a growth allowance by requiring reduction of emis- sions from existing sources beyond the extent necessary 42 for meeting the AAQSs; in this case, a new or modified existing source will be permitted where its emissions will not exceed the allowance for new sources in the area.

This method amounts to a mandatory creation of emission reduction credits and transfer to the state which then distributes them on the basis of "first-come-first-served".

It is not frequently used because the states found it dif- ficult to reduce emissions from all existing sources to an extent that not only the NAAQSs could be achieved by the statutory deadline but also room for new sources was 43 created.

The only exceptions are states that had adopted SIPs on the basis of the old ozone standards which were then relaxed by EPA; these states were able to use the existing emission limitations for creating a growth margin.

The other more realistic option for a state is to simply require reductions of emissions from existing sources which are sufficient to meet the NAAQSs in the future; in this case, the Amendments allow the construction of a major new or the modification of an existing source only when total allowable emissions from existing sources, from new sources which are iot major emitting sources and from the proposed facility are less than total emissions from existing sources allowed under the SIP prior to the ap- plication and this net reduction of emission represents further reasonable progress.

The Amendments of incorporate its essential elements into the Act. It must be noted that in case of coal conversion EPA al- lows a new source or a modification of an existing source in a nonattainment area without obtaining offsets if the source is in a locality within the area that meets the NAAQSs.

The revised SIPs must provide such emission reductions from existing sources in an nonattainment area as may be obtained through the use of reasonably available control technology RACT.

This is a minimum standard which. It requires a determination that a given control technology, considering the costs of installing and operation, is feasible for the 47 average source of a class or category of sources.

The SIP may go beyond RACT or revise RACT definitions once accepted or it may, with respect to particular sources or groups of cources, set forth less scringent requirements if this can be based on the particular conditions of the relevant sources, although in practice this is rare.

However, the states are free to set a lower threshold for preconstruction- review than mandated by the Act and thus subject certain minor sources to major new source requirements.

In these areas PSD areas , only a specified growth "increment" of air quality deterioration is per- mitted, ar.

Under "the Pi. Certain pristine areas such as national parks and wilderness areas of a certain size are permanently designated by statute as Class I.

All other areas are initially designated Class II allowing more in- tensive growth amounting to roughly 25 percent increase in pollution levels.

States are authorized to redesignate areas either as Class I or, subject to some exceptions, also as Class III, put in practice, this has only seldom been done.

The Amendments themselves determine the allowable in- crements for sulfur dioxide and particulates for each of the three PSD classes.

It is the baseline concentration plus the increment. As a practical matter, the ceilings are a kind of differentiated tertiary ambient air quality standard for clean air areas specifying maximum levels of allowable pollution from increases over the varied base- line concentrations of individual pollutants.

However, this does not mean that these pollutants are outside the scope of PSD regulation. All other requirements of the PSD program, especially the analysis of anticipated emissions to de- termine applicability of PSD review, the analysis of im- pact on ambient air maintenance of NAAQSs and the tech- 54 nology-related requirements appiy to these pollutants.

However, the emphasis of the PSD program is laid on major new and modified existing sources fa- cilities. Major emitting facilities are facilities whose potential emissions exceed tons per year if they fall into one of the 28 categories specifically designated in the Act.

These levels are relatively low. Modifications of major facilities are only subject to PSD preconstruction review where a certain threshold of sig- nificance is exceeded.

In contrast to the nonattainment program, the notion of "facility" is broad, and the operator of a modernizing plant can "net out" of preconstruction review where the net increase of emissions is below the de minimis thresholds.

Furthermore, there are procedural requirements, including the requirement of a public haaring. The baseline level also includes projected emissions from major emitting facilities on which construction commenced prior to January 6, but which has not yet begun oper- ations before the application.

All other increases in pollution - from major new or modified facilities con- structed after January 6, as well as from non-major and existing facilities not assumed in the SIP -are charged against the allowable increment.

Any emissions not included in the baseline are counted against the in- crement. EPA has also issued modelling guidelines that shall facilitate.

The application of federal and state emission standards, including BACT, and the gradual retirement of existing sources normally prevent an increment consumption.

Apart from some areas in the Northwest and Texas, the major ef- fect of the increment consumption review seems to be on 69 industrial planning.

Beyond increment consumption, the applicant must also demonstrate that the pollutants emitted from the new or modified source do not contribute to a violation of the NAAQSs.

Moreover, this requirement is not only applicable for pol- lutants for which increments have been established by the Act, namely sulfur dioxide and particulates, but for all other criteria pollutants.

CT is required only for the modernized unit and pollutants for which there is a significant net increase. Since the statute directs that "energy, environ- mental, and economic impacts and other costs" must be taken into account, one can say that the standard is less stringent '.

The concept of the Act to determine BACT on a case-by-case basis raises the problem of inconsistent determinations in the states, EPA attempts to give the states guidance by publishing abstracts of existing BACT determinations.

How- ever, there are retrofit obligations for existing sources for the protection of visibility, ' and sources not covered by the PSD program may be required by the SIP to reduce their emissions if this is necessary to cure an existing increment violation.

However, in contrast to the various proposals for introducing marketable rights to pollute, emissions trading is a simple modification of the exist- ing regulatory system of air pollution control.

Emission reducvion credits can only be used in the framework of permitting procedures, either to fulfill substantive re- quirements or to avoid the institution of such procedures.

Emission trading consists of emission offsets, bubbles, netting and, emission reduction banking. Ihese elements of the emissions trading policy are united by a common econ- omic rationale.

The emission trading policy is designed to save pollution control costs by permitting the operator or several operators to decide themselves about control measures, so long as the net result is t'.

EPA's Emission Trading Policy State- ment of establishes common minimum legal requirements for creating, using and banking of emission reduction credits.

It makes the attempt to present a uniform legal concept of the whole emissions trading policy. Neverthe- less, emissions offsets, bubbles, netting and banking have quite distinct roles in the regulatory system.

Their his- torical development is'quite different. It must be emphasized, though, that forms of emissions trading had already been prac- ticed under the Ford administration.

It was the Carter adminis- tration that took the initiative to formally introduce emissions trading as a supplemental concept of US air pollution control.

The Reagan administration expanded the concept and attempted to relax certain restraints which had previously been considered to be mandated by the pol- icy goals of the Clean Air Act but which, in the view.

The conceptualization of the emissions trading policy as a uniform policy also obscures another important fact, namely the paramount role of the states.

The emissions trading policy only affords options for the states. The states have often been more restrictive than EPA in devising their own emissions trading policy, and there is a relatively high degree of variation among the states.

Even the position of EPA's re- gional offices is not entirely uniform. All this adds to the already existing complexities of the emissions trading policy.

The offset policy allows new major stationary sources or modernizing existing sources to comply with ambient re- quirements in nonattainment areas by securing sufficient surplus emission reductions from other existing sources 80 to more than offset their new or increased emissions.

The offset policy allows new growth while improving the air quality in nonattainment areas. Under the Act, new and modifieo existing sources that emit any criteria pollutant could not be constructed where the NAAQSs for that pollutant are exceeded.

On the other hand, the Act was relatively lenient towards existing sources. It was understood that existir. The Interpretive Ruling is since then only applicable in exceptional cases.

The offset program is administered by the states as part of their revised SIPs. However, the Interpretive Ruling still serves as a guideline for the states in administer- 82 ing their offset program.

The offset policy represents a pragmatic relaxation of the original ambient air quality goals of the Act of in that it allows new emitting sources in nonattainment areas; however, it uses the construction of such sources to achieve a new ambient air quality benefit beyond that achieved by tougher requirements for existing sources.

The bubble policy allows existing plants in attainment as well as non-attainment areas to increase emissions at one source beyond the emission limitations set forth in the applicable SIP in exchange for compensating decreases of emissions at other sources.

The bubble concept con- siders the several sources as one source and seeks to im- pose on the group of sources an emission limitation which is equivalent to the aggregated emission limitations pre- i viously applicable to these single sources.

It does not change the "status" of existing sources; in particular, the relatively preferential treatment of existing sour- ces which still exists under the Clean Air Act Amendments of , is not modified or even abolished by the policy.

It is an alternative means of meeting emission limitations set forth in the SIP for several existing sources.

Plant managers may choose a more cost-effective combination of emission reductions while not exceeding the applicable emission to- tal.

Moreover, it is expected that anticipated cost savings will promote technological progress. Firms have an incen- tive to develop cheaper control technology or low-pollution processes if they do not lose the emission reduction created by the use of these technologies or processes but are accorded a credit that can be used to offset increased emissions at another source.

The bubble policy is a re- sponse to the specific problems of existing plants in meeting especially new emission limitations set forth in the revised SIP.

Since retrofit expenses normally are higher than expenses for pollution control equipment for new plants, it was thought that operators of existing plants needed more flexibility for deciding on the use of control technology to meet SIP requirements.

It has no express statutory basis in the Clean Air Act. In calculating whether the increased emis- sions from the modified source are significant, only net in- creases in plant-wide emissions are considered.

A plant can compensate increased emissions from the modified source by de- creasing emissions from other sources within the same plant.

The rationale underlying this emission trading concept is the saving of business and administrative cost in cases having no or only a de minimis impact on ambient air quality.

By "netting out" of preconstruction review, the operator of a modified source removes all the - procedural and sub- stantive - burdens of new source review.

The administrat- ive workload decreases correspondingly since the competent agency must only make sure that the prerequisites of net- ting are fulfilled.

Netting is one of the oldest, perhaps - as far as actual practice is concerned - the oldest of all emission trading concepts, although it is only recently that it has been formally recognized as a separate concept within the emis- sion trading policy.

The concept was first adopted in as part of the offset policy in nonattainment areas. To this extent, in the light of a decision of the Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia of , its legality had become doubtful; however, a recent US Su- preme Court decision has reversed the decision of the Court of Appeal and;confirmed the netting program in nonattainment areas see below pp.

Previously, netting was often referred to as part of the bubble concept? There are two kinds of banking: informal and formal banking.

Informal banking is sufficient where the relevant firm only seeks to store the credit for its own use in the future.

Formal banking is necessary where a firm that has created an emission reduction credit wants to store it for later sale to a third party; also, for- mal banks serve as a clearing house for transactions in emission reduction credits between different parties.

Moreover, the prohib- ition of banking would decrease the number of possible trades and thereby weaken the cost-saving potential of the emission trading policy.

EPA originally considered banking of emission reduction credits as inconsistent with the basic policy of the Clean Air Act However, together with the extension of the emissions trading policy in , EPA allowed 90 banking.

Since then, informal banking has been widely practiced as part of the permitting procedure in respect of netting and internal offset transactions, while for- mal bankinc still is limited to a few areas.

The Emissions Trading Policy Statement of gives a detailed de- scriptic. EPA also has recently published draft model banking rules that can be used by the states as a model to devise their own banking rules as part of 91 generic emission trading rules or as separate rules.

The Role of the Emissions Trading Policy in the Regulatory System As stated, emission offsets, bubbles, netting and banking, although united by a common economic rationale, have quite distinct legal features and their place in the regulatory system of air pollution control is different.

The offset policy is ambient quality-oriented. It allows new major stationary sources and modified existing sour- ces to comply with ambient requirements in nonattainment areas if they secure sufficient surplus emission re- ductions from other sources to more than offset their new or additional emissions.

The policy allows the location of new sources or modernization of existing sources in- spite of the nonattainment status of the area if, by vir- tue of emission reductions the operator has obtained for other sources, the air quality in the area is improved in such a way as to constitute reasonable progress towards achieving the NAAQSs by the prolonged statutory deadline.

These offsets may be created within the plant internal offset , they may also be created in other plants owned by the operator of the new source or by a third par- ty external offset.

Since the offset policy is designed to enable sources to comply with ambient requirements, offsets may not be used to meet technology-based stan- dards for new sources in nonattainment areas, such as NSPSs and LAER requirements.

The offset policy has been developed to cope with the par- ticular problems of industrial -growth in nonattainment areas anc1 in practice it is almost exclusively applied in such aroas.

However, the underlying concept has a broader scope of application. It can also be used to comply with 94 1 ambient requirements in PSD areas.

If the application of BACT does not secure suf- ficient reductions to comply with the standard, the oper- ator may seek reductions from other sources.

Moreover, the offset concept is applicable where a new source in a PSD area will have emissions that would violate an allow- able increment.

However, since the practice shows that in- crement violation in PSD areas is not very frequent, the use of the offset policy in PSD areas for offsetting an increment violation that would otherwise occur is rela- tively rare.

The bubble policy primarily is emissions-oriented. There is an indirect link to ambient requirements in that the bubble policy affords existing sources an alternative way of meeting emission limitations set forth in the SIP for attaining the NAAQS s.

Furthermore, the requirement of "ambient equivalence",. T'ne bubble policy allows existing plants to increase emissions at one source beyond the applicable emission limitations in exchange for compensating decreases of emissions at other sources.

This compensation can occur at the same plant internal bubble , it may also occur at two or more plants of the same owner or dif- 95 fe. The bubble concept applies to all emission limitations im- posed upon existing sources by the applicable SIP, includ- ing technology based requirements such as the RACT stan- 97 dard in nonattainment areas.

However, the extension of the bubble concept to NSPSs under particular circumstances, e. Netting exempts operators of existing plants modernizing or expanding from new source review requirements as long as any increase in plant-wide emissions is insignificant in the meaning of preconstruction review regulations.

In determining whether the threshold levels are exceeded, only net increases in plant-wide emissions are considered.

A plant can, therefore, compensate increased emissions from a modified source by decreasing emissions from other sources within the same plant, provided the decrease is contemporaneous, i.

External netting is not possible. Technically, the netting policy is based on a broad definition of "facility" in PSD areas or "source" in nonattainment areas.

The netting policy applies both to attainment and nonat- tainment areas. However, in a recent decision, the US Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia declared the extension of the netting policy to nonattainment areas to be inconsistent with the Clean Air Act and directed EPA to restore the narrow source definition and the reconstruc- tion rule.

Since then, the status of the netting policy in nonattainment areas has been insecure. The effects of "netting out" of preconstruction review are much farther-reaching than those of using the offset and the bubble concepts.

By "netting out" of preconstruction review, the operator of a modified plant removes all the burdens of a new source review requirements, including the consideration of ambient violations violation of NAAQSs or violation of PSD increments and associated monitoring and modelling requirements, applicable bans on construction and installation of BACT.

In the case of nonattainment, the regulations provided for the possibility to "net out" of ambient requirements as well as of the requirement to install technology thai- keeps emissions within LAER.

The most important practical consequence of the netting policy is that the operator of a facility can avoid the procedural requirements of the preconstruction view procedure.

Since most emissions trades amount to a modification of SIP requirements and, therefore, can in principle only be effectuated through a revision of the SIP which in turn requires the approval of EPA, the Policy Statement de- scribes the policy EPA will follow in processing appli- cations for SIP revisions involving emissions trades.

Where emissions trades are effectuated outside the SIP review process through application of state generic rules, these rules represent a "generic" SIP revision and there- fore, assuming EPA has authority to approve such SIP re- visions, require EPA approval; here, the Policy State- ment determines EPA's policy in processing applications for approval of state generic rules.

Thus it may be assumed that the principles pronounced by EPA in the Policy Statement will essentially determine the future policy of the agency in the field of emissions trading.

This justifies it that the following presentation of the emissions trad- Ing policy primarily is based on the Policy Statement.

It must be noted, however, that the Policy Statement is a draft only and that EPA may change the Statement in sev- eia'l respects following court developments and the-many critical comments it has received.

Only surplus reductions at a particular source can be substituted for a reduction re- quired at another source in an emissions trade.

Otherwise, the trade would have an adverse ambient impact and would run counter to the goals of the Clean Air Act. In order to determine whether a reduction is "surplus", it is necessary to establish a level of baseline emissions of a source ,,beyond which the reduction must occur to re- ceive a credit.

Generally speaking, the determination of the baseline depends on whether the area is nonattainment or attainment, and by the way the SIP ha-?

It should be noted, however, that where actual emissions are taken as a baseline, this normally requires that the source does not violate existing emission limits; in other words: the actual emissions must be lower than the allow- able emissions.

In nonattainment areas that used allowable emissions as the basis for their attainment strategy, the allowable limits can be used as the basis for creating ECRs, even if actual historical emissions of a source are lower than the allowables.

In nonattainment areas where actual emissions, based on inventories or back-calculated from ambient values, were used as the basis for demonstrating attainment, the actual emissions of a source normally are the baseline for creat- ing ERCs.

The Policy Statement contains little guidance on the reference period average or average of highest year in larger period, seasonal operations.

However, the new source review regulations of cover some of these ques- tions. The creation of ECRs is also possible in areas which stiM lack' an approved SIP that demonstrates attainment by thj statutory deadline, provided this is consistent with reasonable further progress towards attainment and ulti- mate attainment of the relevant ambient standard.

In this case the source can agree on acceptable RACT limits for the emission sources in- volved in the trade. Any reduction in excess of those re- quired by the agreed RACT limits would be considered sur- plus.

If ambient consider- ations require so, it may and must impose stricter RACT limits that must be complied with either by the source that had created the credit or by the user of the credit who would have to acquire new credits.

Instead of using a negotiated RACT baseline, areas that have received extensions for attaining the primary ozone or carbon monoxide standards until as well as areas that do not meet the secondary ambient standards for sul- fur oxide or particulates, may also use current actual emissions of a source as the baseline for creating ERCs.

The prerequisite for admitting such a transaction is that the sources involved commit themselves to produce ad- ditional reductions equivalent to future RACT limits when the state imposes them'.

The problem, of course, is how to achieve future reductions when RACT is imposed. As a practical matter, this concept will only be used where an operator already anticipates the possibility of future emission reductions, e.

Since actual ambient air quality is the basis for determining increment consumption and attainment of the NAAQSs, and the maintenance strategy is based on actual emissions, these normally must also be the base- line for creating an ERC.

However, EPA also accepts allow- able emissions as baseline if "proper consideration is given to increment usage". Contrary to what the Policy Statement seems to suggest, allowable emissions may not be used in netting transactions.

A very controversial issue is the question whether and to what extent plant shutdowns as well as production cur- tailments can be considered in determining whether an emissions reduction is surplus.

EPA in principle allows the use of shutdowns as a means of creating ERCs The Policy Statement seems to limit this to bubble trades but existing regulations also seem to allow the use of shut- downs in offset and netting transactions.

Pursuant to a settlement concluded in a litigation between EPA and the Chemical Manufacturers' Aseoriation CMA , EPA considers to abolish certain restrictions with respect to offsets that are contained in the Interpretive Ruling time-limits, limi- tation to replacement projects, legal enforceability of the reduction via shut-down.

However, the principles governing the treatment of pre-existing reductions must be observed in order to avotd double-counting. An emissions reduction may not alre?

The treatment of pre-existing reductions is different ac- cording to the assumptions of the SIP for demonstrating attainment of the ambient standards.

If the SIP is based on actual emissions, reductions that occurred before monitoring data were collected for use in developing the SIP cannot be used to create ERCs because monitoring levels already reflect these reductions and their use would amount to double-counting.

Reductions made after the inventory or monitoring data were collected for developing the most recent revised SIP are admis- sible, even if they were made some time before the ap- plication to grant a credit for the reduction.

In attainment PSD areas, reductions that were made be- fore the PSD emissions baseline was established do not qualify for credit since these reductions are already as- sumed by the relevant state in establishing the PSD base- line.

The requirement that shut-downs do not qualify for creat- ing credits if they have already been assumed in develop- ing the area's attainment strategy decreases the import- ance of the shut-down problem.

Difficult questions arise where the SIP already assumed a given quantity of. Where the to- tal number of shutdowns assumed in the SIP has already oc- curred, EPA allows additional shutdowns as a source for creating emission reduction credits without further re- strictions such as consideration of the geographical distribution of the previ.

The states may choose not to take credit for "turnover" reductions or they may credit a percentage of the total emission reduc- tions realized from a shutdown if they can show that such credit is consistent with the SIP's demonstration of at- tainment and reasonable further progress.

State generic and banking rules show that states tend to be more restrictive than EPA. Some rules expressly disal- low the use of shutdowns; others require contemporaneous trades, limit the duration of credits created by shutdowns, exclude cert3 in trades or require a determination that there is no increase of the same pollutant at a similar source in order to cope with the problem of local elastici of demand and ensuing increases of the production of exist ing sources or the location of new sources.

Where the SIP is based on actual total emissions, some emissions limits such as RACT or the: same; percentage reductions as are applicable to inventoried sonrces must be imposed on ui.

Each offset, bubble, netting or banking transaction must be federally enforceable and must be ap- proved by the state.

EPA is considering to dispense with the requirement of federal enforceability in offset and netting transac- tions. In the case of generic rules, additional re- quirements must be observed.

Emission trades effectuated in application of generic rules are deemed to be part of the SIP, in other words they amount to a SIP revision.

However, in order to be enforceable, such emission trades must be incorporated in a compliance document which is le- gally binding and practically enforceable, such as an agreement between the source and the state, an operating or construction permit, or a consent decree that sets source-specific emission limits.

Here, a temporary credit can be granted if emission increases and decreases are equal in duration. In order to meet this requirement, the state" must' establish a re- liable basis for measuring the amount'and rate of: the re- duction and describing its characteristics.

However, EPA does not require monitoring. It is remarkable that the Policy Statement does not prescribe a measurement or calculation method that expresses the emission reduction in absolute terms, i.

As an additional principle, one should mention the regional limitation of emission trading. It is true that there is no legal limitation and sources could prove the ambient equi- valence,.

On the other hand, long-distance impacts of emission trades beyond AQCRs are normally not considered in determining ambient equivalence. Therefore, the principle of regionalisation could be con- siderer.

According to the Policy Statement, these principles apply to all emission trades. However, in respecL of netting, certain qualifications must be made.

Since the NAAQSs must be met with respect to any criteria pollutant and separ- ate SIPs must be developed, the emissions trading policy also must distinguish between the different criteria pol- lutants.

However, in California interpollutant trades, e. The purpose of these rules is to reduce the ambient concentration of sulphates and ozone by tack- ling their precursors.

On the other hand, the generic rules of some states con- tain restrictions that are designed to cope with the prob- lem that pollution involving the same criteria pollutants is not necessarily associated with the same health and en- vironmental impacts.

Second, all uses of ERCs must satisfy ambient tests. This principle, although pronounced in a general fashion, only is applicable to offsets and bubbles.

Netting trades are treated differently. The potential ambient impacts of "netting out" of. However, where stack heights are different, a netting trade may have an adverse effect on air quality.

Therefore, it is not consequential that netting trades should be entire- ly exempted from ambient tests. The reason for this exemp- tion seems to be that otherwise the very objective of al- lowing netting trades, namely to relieve the enterprises from the costly preconstruction review procedure, would be frustrated.

The principle that the use of ERCs must satisfy ambient tests means that use of ERCs may not create a new viol- ation of an ambient standard or prevent the planned re-.

This requirement follows from the mandate of the Clean Air Act to attain and maintain the NAAQSs and not to exceed the increments for the preven- tion of significant deterioration of the existing air quality.

The policy of the EPA with respect to ambient impacts of emission reduction trades is different according to the dispersion characteristics ol the pollutants involved.

Other aspects such as time-phasing are not considered; in particular, the rules on ambient impact do not reflect the structure of the NAAQSs1.

Therefore, "pound per pound" 1 25 trades may be treated as equal in ambient effect. They have estab- lished a scheme of geographic discounting that requires more than even reductions of emissions according to the distance between the two sources involved.

Distance between the sources, plume parameters especially stack height , pollutant characteristics, meteorology, and topography af- fect the ambient impact of emission reduction trades in- volving these pollutants.

The general principle is that off-set transactions must demonstrate "ambient progress" and that bubble transactions must demonstrate "ambient equivalence", i.

However, in the latter case an improve- ment of air quality may follow from the fact that bubbles often are used to meet emission limitations that have been stiffened due to a SIP revision.

Geographic discounting of ERCs and monitoring and modelling the dis- persion of emissions would seem to be sufficient to ensure the geographic equivalence of inter-district emission re- ductions and increases.

In order to facilitate the demonstration of ambient pro- gress or ambient equivalence, EPA has developed a three- tiered system of modelling that links the degree of re- quired modelling to the likely ambient impact of the pro- posed trade.

Third, in nonattainment areas - as opposed to PSD areas - emissions trades may in principle not result in a net in- crease of baseline emissions.

There are some limited exceptions to the principle. Thus, a net in- crease-of emissions is permitted where generic rules exist and the SIP hajcreated a growth margin, or where the state, in order to mahe the emissions trade possible, revises its SIP so as to create a compensation for the increased emis- sions at another location, which is consistent with reason- able further progress.

Furthermore, insignificant net in- creases of emissions are permitted in netting transactions. This principle is imprrtant because i the group of VOC for which a NAAQS exists comprises com- pounds that are hazardous, such as benzene; furthermore, hazardous pollutants may be produced as necessary components of other criteria pollutant streams.

EPA allows emission trades between any pollutants belonging to the group of VOC if the hazardous pollutant emissions are decreased "traded down" in exchange for an increase of non-hazardous pollutant emissions, but not vice versa.

The same may be. The principle does not modify the rule that emission trades must involve the same criteria pollutants. However, in California trades between different criteria pollutants are allowed in order to reduce hazardous pollutants Second, to a limited extent the bubble policy is appli- cable to other hazardous pollutants.

However, with respect to the 37 pol- lutants that are considered as hazardous but not yet sub- ject to -specific -regulations, bubble trades can be made provided there is an equivalent increase and decrease of the same pollutant at reasonably close sources.

The Policy Statement expressly declares that the prohib- ition against. It must be no- ted that existing PSD regulations allow netting trades associated with de minimis increases of hazardous pol- lutants for which NESHAP are in force 10 percent of the emission standard Fifth, emissions trades can in principle not be used to meet technology-based requirements.

Finally, existing sources can meet technology-based requirements, such as RACT in nonattainment areas, by using internal or external emission reductions.

The extension of compliance deadlines is based on similar considerations. Compliance deadlines may be extended by the states as part of bubble trades in respect of VOCs or CO sources, provided the deadlines for attainment of the NAAQSs have been extended until and the bubble trade is consistent with reasonable further progress.

These principles or rules apply to formal banks, i. Richartcd Duncan, n Rio de Janeiro, en , ds- ie Cnl6n. Zaldivar y Cordro,. Te6filo Gimes, Reynosa.

Gerardo Cautrll6 Gi rceia; procued sr. Is rcgio O n. En no e Bnitannia Lous- pars conaid is nes Son toenices y proesouIm emoaum qte ofrecieron Jos qauarroca.

Marceuno sCane. Mai- cauci6a contra e communism pr. HMartao dades. S"oebsin Ball-ar problem qu a situacin portancia en estos moentos y cambios d mpreson pars q C A-t onznlez Cide ldel moment creabe tuera do formarDin parts del personal que ajustar criterias y hare mn isfa- Antonio Cid Rodriguez aue a AMnricas.

Sse dedir "ra taa a l a lia n ci i rt-plancin lcd Ia ley y Llano Prez. Maria Zorlla Re. I Esta sern Po IaC to a pri- la on curdches sramas de Ia exten- por tanto menos lesva en certe s boul.

Lucian Bi- la I paz originada pricipal- hogar, iendo s i intends a trir su apliacu6n. Marvel s Noval. I plicindose que el curso emrn- y c6mo lte habia isdo a sa vez Dii;uesto al entierro ars ho miercoles di, 15 a a 4 K.

P prendq un minimo de conoei- dable a los haendadds demos- Disr. I relatis-stivos a Ia recotec- tr-ar s, demose de ayudar sine- sa iud, h lns.

Con s. Carlos Alfonso y Jorge Luis, habri con al motive muchos halagos de fa- miliares y amistades.

Magnifica recepci6n en la IVan Caneghem y Faustina I. El embajador de Italia. Joe Moi'. Elizabeth Ber '.. Luin Fraisse Horten-; tnelil.

Guillou y Di. Gida v Syivia de BRoa. Adela Ri. George lellanos. Anolan Ldptz. Danita S-4 'In a e ugal c 'ministro de PortugaT.

JAto nl el -ruion - r lentisimo Sr J. Pierre Hebrard y senora guncu introductory de Embajado-; Canada. S Roger R. ParlourlSimone de Hebrard.

Emilio Faroy res. Juan Magnier y nor. Urban Real. Paul Lentz. El secretarlu dc la Embajada senora de Magnier. Alberto Tiano.

Gabriel Dafotite y seano- Adela Acosta. Stephan Ber- Riveru. Roman Orline. Roberto Pauly. Charles Gran Bretafia. Leonard J A. Pa- Bexon y sehora de Bexon, Enri- Lefebure.

Carlos Almasy. Ernesto Blasim Raul Mexico. Eduardo Luqui; el pri- Fene. Juan Leu y Antoniette Cowley. Cowley Recio. Auguska Maxwell man v seftora Vlagitl Bartinann.

Rogelio Martinez y Suzane de Vieites. Armandoh Trocha, Alain Scontinuari tin t :rupo de M. Edear Somma, Mpuricio llmatrimonlos do la soctedad ha- e'cora de Ducoreaux.

Maurice Labarrere. Roberto s Jorce Za- Itosa P. Ernestio de Zal- Entre las sefioras, ademasl nasc. David Ba t Grt r. Rfland Pernet. Maximc DOi- Excelentes toallas de felpa do- plie..

Al- Cherel. Maircel ble, an color. Aittno toGiiaiidler v Dul- Eva Frejavile. Surtido en colors. Henriette Le! Coit- Pujoi totipla.

Benjaetinn Gove. Mithel y Cristian Garres do Rscitier. Juan Claudio Tou-. El Rsdo. Padre Balbino. R do ',. Rdo lino.

Hno Victorino. Simone Duprat de Pujol. Deschene SPortell Vih v I. Paulette Zcige l a dt Armas. Manuel Hurte. Miguel Triav y Juana Rodi.

Sy ia Mart i Ma tin y Nicole Lefebre. Charles Todd y Pitficl. Gladys George. I selso-. Cnnrc o Bai. Rober Lapol- bonito traje itplime.

Ann MA- le flona. Josette de Ltaorti De la colonia francea anota- rla Brull. Ann Maria. Durante today la noche atmni- bellisitmo y lujoso "night club" zo in el "cocktail lounge" el ce- del reparto Buenavista.

Ani-it- v medio. Fueyo la bella seolia. EApecticuloe NY 12da. Divertido carton en col-ores. Fox, Universal. Sociedad dei'lots. W N WiegeinlJed. BBC de D " Londres.

Lats- noamer ca no die la BC lie- go a nuestra cpiital proce- dente de Canacs. El cargo de Direc- ARI.

I ky-Tschalkowsky S,1 En la temporada musical de i l i A 1 4m1 un icico con obras dl cibimiento de cordialidad y anm- popular canlanic d Veneuela, Strawinsky y Peter mar!

Adla aslln. El program des del t undo arlistico nacin. Inigc Guelrein y ttes cuprimero concierios hirnveIllda en su condlci6n de Ch..

Protagonist de mas de dran el marco musical de la or-Ira subre las Carmen Sevilla re La empresa Sinfonia".

Zyas Bazan. Ia, tan ligados a la sociedad ha- Las mangas tres cuartos se banera por lazos de familiar y complptaban con largos guantes amistad.

En aras del mis pnaro amor se' Y la larga cola veiase cubierta desposo La secoitta Zayas Bazan pt! Oftiei Mnosernr Rastilt der'icia Y fuelon padrinos el doctor Sean muy felicel.

Contlnuacion Suaresr v Rend Mendnder. Daisy Miss MPrv Lewis. Miss Honey Menendez v Ricardo Ceballos. Brennan y doctoi Felix Chediak. Vehlina Milgaho.

Jaumn y Fr. Minita Luis Jorce man. Enrique Fi ueroi. Martinez do Fleite. Terlu n dr c Conciei ei ['I "party" de clilenos. L d ario.

Enrique Biaxi, Fernandez del public de la Habana. Sici ae etectuara sibado proxsmo ble via do Rancho Boverns sera y senora, con et d,ctni Prl tlla We'ssenber..

Ian eoioritas Europa v unn de los valores jo- tardi. B enda v Carildad B. Portilla Sanche, rentara por prinmera vez en Ci- la iriimldad y cosn exelusin de saldra tambn el "bouquet" de Di Rifa el de ia Concepli0n v b ua oesupenda Orquesta ole inviRedaones.

Ias famosas Cuerdas de de lis contrayentes. I Y harAn do padrnosi,. Bat R irtner y cnmo sonls's e. Erica Wor. E li zaieth Schswarzkopff "Beneficlo de Renta pora la Familia".

Rey de la To- Entirese de los detalles con el Representante Ie, etc. Cuba pr Prmera vez. Ia Orqucsta ielvlica con Julian van Karolys coma opianista soltis- a.

Chapman- Obispo Noa , Habana -Telf. Tallas del 36 ael Vahan Tallas del 36 al 50, cortas. Valian de Y tarnsbi6n en gris claro y oscuro, beige.

Modelos de dos y de tres botones, en tallas del 36 5a 50, cor- tas, regulars y largas. Vatian des- de Tambli6 sin obra. Modelos de dos y de tries bo.

Valian 54 95 y Johnson, de 35 h. Bertha Armnand Floret nofrece a. I gnarra. Y en todo momintn qullo, faeli. Ay 'Prado y Tte ocadoo.

MS X,. D lossnab. O L'AS. A una CetlIa. Adema, Gaina io Luneta. Fr movedora sinceridad. Nt inrPsii-sn.

Marisra Rolia. MonTerrl e No. ML-IS a Tru illo. Antonin Ceballo. Su posterior mi- sult6 incteresante v b. B3 VedV do.

F tfI S con la cuet 6n eslelar de no. Lunea o Cuqui Ponce de Leon. U-1a1 I RD Esaa noche a las siele. Armando Robitn. Vodaa a it.

It AMarlibelIa Garc. Julletai rgerran las cameras del Ca:. L; nl. Aimandt o Sole L A, Ru. A Primer Min.

Iunda n a. DEi L. A ESCA. Saldo a favor de V dad T. Galian a',, valordel6. O Tetlhnl o Poal I. Sec ua prduci ,ondlc Ial res de pbrll.

Neplnao y O ali noo. M L-l4 l0 u n Fa itt. F, 1 or -le,. IN -Ln i Eln I -elt r. A0 eh'- B- -e til.

AenS l T rnnot. R VUZ. Iern Alberne. M ija. M1u F1 ,rrero. Cain melitL I A M. O l pJuls l 3' clut- TRSn glo. Candita Batusta. ASTOR tioiii.

Zo l ia. Radio Cal lesan oel 26 de J h. B95 d ba kie ndasd D-dc lsa 1. C- tiCa aino. V a Isu e ra I' Malbertl y do recenlenet-e Director del i rui.

L AN tera, e rti glat depari. Lunela i n Oat. P Airtol. Cahrallna i asil 3 l a n ,oruo T. IDO l t l. AlLOS Mtr n IT:o EI ae l.

I' t aut. Is lol. F hail ITl. N iittietit stilt. I ltiri do PeltOiou,:r. Ru, tt s. Il iTl IStie- i ii" N'li F l.

T, m- I.. Columbia y Mendono. O rndo z uezFaLt. DIrn rutoenial - Industl. A PoayllIo n p D sroon. AlbbmCMu1 e T I hi tinit s i c. Margarita Preuto.

A OS" Bil l.. Ii 1 1 K I: ittrtitt ,ic isa solo Fcrnandeu. Tie is in u I isOI liusri 1 5 Oasis,, B a nio, i m c py5,,Bangno.

D1,11 lao I N tit'lero -. VO itiYO I. Por qu7. Hada Baear. Pedro Ateai- 7 iNo0. H-7 e. DE In uIll. Ronito Aictis ms C 8 CVe asno detalics ar ;ebal.

Li O ersqNa uipoda. M iost. Minm Boujo- "-" CaPAr too slnddno ain a. Rainol U- mt lA. RI del t Em lis Vindeinso [Sm-"de ha- C rirhi dtror t.

Mary -. M unns". Fels Jam-. Jon1 A. An- d-r 1 dlBinned. La elad de Is I tenOclO. S1,n- ll. A p Pa-. Ir ue o a Ano p 12, Hicamne.

ItOI ut. Os" ours S iuJerr. J aiiI O uied l. Vodada F Rams Ca ftu tlnuu aco. F uente. Dominxgo 19 -- a-. P o eyhuh- LaunsIa. Cll Are la Atto arci p 1 Pahn.

IA M ni. AN "AUG0 r.. Perc S d a a nue Audrain y- su nlet En. LUI E-l a: aor.. Irj, Enrique Blustillo Vales. En- Enriquei C Doiietal el tctitodo nrabe.

Enrique C. Un apart para Eric Juarn el Enaique Cazade. Enrique BenRuria. Enrique Almuilfas Aura. Padre Enrinue Pdrez comerciante de esta capital.

Pasionistas de la Vibo- ra se celebrara el proxime dia quince de agosto, a las site y media de la noche, la boda de la atractiva sefiorita Car- mencits Abreu Alicot con el senior Jorge Toro Madrigal.

Ya vienen ultimindose los detalles de tan simpatico enlace. Al mismo tiempo circulando entire las amistades de am- bos contrayentes las invitaciones suscritas por los padres de uno y otro, los matrimonios Francisco Abreu Perera y Gra- iella Alicot y Francisco Toro-AJbelo y Elida Madrigal En su oportunidad daremos la relacion de padrinos y testigos.

Aniversarios nu pciales Saludaanos a un grupo de ma- vemte aios de venturoso matri. Lniversidad de L. Sergio, Rojo e Isis Aguitrie, Del.

Alfre- Mora. Bari el estimado companfero Enrtque -Tres. Ia encantadora senorita Matia Pascu. Jnven Rolando Marcann Frey- tillo.

Bauista Gonzalez Para las sleie de la noche se y Rodolfn Garcia hall fijada la nupclal ceremo- En la boda cmnl] teaSliical in nia. Sanins Paova.

La dc,n'. Del Lyceum Hoy rmidrcolesa la, cratro nmn al posilivismn: de Kant a' de la tarde. Del capitiulo de agostlo, SA'las slete de la noche ds.

Alvarez Alvarez v se- pr el los scores a C. Ramon fora Maria Goyenechea. Boyeros como el "bouquet" de En honorC e ca aeborita Mau- In novi ban sido coo liso a rjcro Castro se celebrarli una Gla novia ha en ambos tradosa merenda el sibado einticincmco Goae rent ambtics t e Los corrientes.

Sylvia Capi- rtcion- Claudb Hernindez. Zapatos Rotary, Roxy y Thomas; hechos en Cuba bajo las mismas normas y t6cnica de fabricaci6n del calzado extranjero de pre- cio mhs elevado.

A ESb. N 9 ROXY. Agehies de transportes y equipajes. Comrercio El Ministerlo de Salubridad maritime. Reembarcan 6ipulantes. No t a ds dapii. Jong, holandds, que tudu la colaboracl6n de todas las L puerto y lo muelles, no angde- so ha quedado en uerra cuando chlnicas y centros mkdicos pli- sados en Ordon General.

Habian asmismo Orleans , kilos: Shiriey recien mntomne c 1. Haven de West Palm Beach ton Se encuentra aut;. I " , kilos; Privateer de Tain- to de La Habanrt al i.

Hamburgo con 1. Rovirosa S.. I iowns Sabiriirral de carga de ellos Jes a e is. Inar ,11 ,rc. Aduana recaudo S Suriname el qu ,c. En la roafianao aO d :r r.

Manuel Gonzalez AndnJa, bidn de la cosa o t Se iar. Mia ,rr. Dipulados Miami y el buqe e. Yarmouth consia. A ;-i. Junco, Ignacio Gon.

Rovirosa conduce. Delegados del Co- turistas. Se reporn.. Miguel A. Zaidi- En el pserlo '. El dia once tomo posesion la guientes buqu : ,' t.

I conducira a dicho Colegio por Vacuba: Spreslt. Caribeo v Os. Al propio tempo aoun- en custodla po 1, r. Berdasarkan pendapat ini maka menjadi jelaslah bahwa menulis paper ilmiah merupakan mata rantai yang tidak terpisahkan dalam kegiatan riset.

Berdasarkan sedikit pengalaman yang dimiliki, penulis mencoba menuangkan cara penulisan paper yang penulis ketahui, khususnya paper yang dimaksudkan untuk diterbitkan di jurnal ilmiah internasional dalam tulisan yang sangat singkat ini.

Penulis percaya, masih banyak yang lebih berpengalaman dari penulis dalam hal penulisan paper ilmiah.

Mungkin karena keterbatasan waktu yang ada maka beliau-beliau belum sempat menulis petunjuk penulisan paper ilmiah tersebut.

Dengan demikian, mudah-mudahan tulisan singkat ini dapat menjadi satu petunjuk yang bermanfaat bagi sia saja yang mau menuangkan hasil riset dalam bentuk paper ilmiah, baik nasional maupun internasional.

Hiroshima, 12 Maret Mikrajuddin 2 Bab 1. Apa itu Paper Ilmiah Paper ilmiah adalah laporan hasil riset yang ditulis dan dipublikasi oleh satu atau beberapa orang peneliti.

Isi suatu paper ilmiah harus orisinil, yang dapat berupa penemuan yang benar-benar baru atau penyempurnaan dari temuan temuan yang telah lebih dahulu ada.

Paper ilmiah tidak sama dengan laporan biasa seperti yang dibuat di sekolah lanjutan yang hanya merupakan pemaparan ulang infromasi-informasi yang telah dipublikasi di beberapa referensi.

Paper ilmiah tidak melulu mengetengahkan koleksi data, tetapi menuntut analisis dan interpretasi intelektual dari data tersebut. Paper ilmiah tidak mengharapkan penggunanaan kata-kata yang penuh analogi dan metafora.

Paper ilmiah bergelut dengan fakta yang dipaparkan secara singkat dan jelas. Paper ilmiah dikatakan baik apabila mengandung informasi sebanyak-banyaknya yang diungkapkan dengan sesedikit mungkin kata-kata.

Ide-ide yang diketengahkan harus ditulis secara jelas dan logis. Perpindahan satu ide ke ide yang lain harus mengalir dengan lancar. Paper ilmiah ditulis untuk dibaca oleh orang lain.

Proses pengembangan ide seperti di atas diharapkan menarik perhatian pembaca agar tetap membaca dan kalau mungkin mengaplikasikan informasi yang dilaporkan di dalam kegiatan riset, pengajaran, atau praktek-praktek yang mereka jalankan.

Motivasi peneliti melaksanakan eksperimen, rancangan serta pelaksanaan eksperimen dan makna dari hasil yang diperoleh harus tertuang dalam paper yang ditulis.

Penulisan paper ilmiah dapat bermakna mempengaruhi orang lain untuk menerima atau menolak hasil yang dilaporkan. Jika hasil tersebut bisa bertahan dari segala kritik maka ia diterima sebagai bagian tubuh ilmu pengetahuan sampai diperoleh temuan baru yang menyangkal hasil laporan tersebut.

Penulisan paper ilmiah tidak dapat dipisahkan dari pelaksanaan riset itu sendiri. Telah menjadi kesepakatan umum di antara para akademisi dan peneliti bahwa seseorang belum dikatakan mengerjakan suaru riset sebelum mepublikasikan hasil riset tersebut.

Paper ilmiah masih menjadi pilihan utama antara para peneliti dan akademisi untuk melakukan komunikasi ide dan penemuan baru.

Oleh karena itu, informasi yang dilaporkan harus dapat dibaca dan dipahami oleh peneliti lain. Eksperimen yang dilaporkan harus dapat diulang oleh peneliti lain dengan menghasilkan kesimpulan yang sama.

Banyak teknik penulisan yang dirancang untuk entertainment. Namun penulisan paper ilmiah mempunyai tujuan yang berbeda, yaitu mengkomunikasikan penemuan ilmiah baru.

Penulisan paper ilmiah harus sejelas dan sependek mungkin. Secara singkat paper ilmiah dapat didefinisikan sebagai: a publikasi pertama hasil riset original b dalam bentuk yang memungkinkan pengulangan eksperimen dan pengecekan kesimpulan c di dalam jurnal atau sumber dokumen lain yang tersedia dalam komunitas ilmuwan.

Secara kebetulan muncul dua jurnal sins secara bersamaan, yaitu Journal des Csavans di Prancis dan Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London di Inggris.

Bab 2. Judul Judul adalah bagian yang sangat penting dari paper anda dan secara langsung ikut menentukan jumlah pembaca. Judul mengungkapkan abstraksi tertinggi dari suatu paper dan dari judul orang menangkap esensi paper anda.

Mungkin hanya sedikit orang yang akan membaca keseluruhan paper, tetapi akan banyak orang yang membaca judul, entah di dalam jurnal asal atau dari jurnal sekunder yang tertera di refrerensi paper tersebut.

Jadi, judul harus dipersiapkan dengan sangat teliti. Kebanyakan kesalahan yang terjadi pada pembuatan judul adalah kesalahan pengurutan kata-kata.

Menurut Day , judul yang baik adalah yang menggunakan kata-kata sesedikit mungkin tetapi cukup menjelaskan isi paper. Judul tidak boleh terlalu pendek yang menyebabkan pembaca bingung.

Apakah studi yang dilakukan adalah taxonomi, genetika, biokimia, atau medis, tidak terungkap dengan jelas di judul tersebut. Sebaliknya, banyak judul yang terlalu panjang sehingga lebih membingungkan pembaca.

Judul yang panjang-panjang banyak digunakan pada paper-paper di masa lampau ketika ilmu 4 pengetahuan masih kurang terspesialisasi.

Rheinberg yang dimuat di J. Judul yang sangat panjang hanya membuang kata-kata. Mari kita lihat salah satu analisis judul yang dicontohkan Day. Judul tersebut cukup singkat dan tidak membawa kata-kata yang tidak perlu.

Tentu tidak demikian yang dimasud oleh judul tersebut. Jika hanya satu atau beberapa antibitic yang digunakan, maka tulis semua antibiotic tersebut di judul paper.

Jika hanya satu atau beberapa bakteri yang dipelajari, maka tulis juga semuanya di paper anda. Jika terlalu banyak jenis bakteri atau antibiotic yang dipelajari maka nama grup perlu ditulis di judul sebagai penggnti daftar nama yang terlalu panjang.

Meskipun judul-judul di atas sudah cukup dapat diterima tetapi masih belum terlalu baik karena masih bersifat umum.

Abstrak harus ditulis dengan teliti untuk memberikan efek yang berarti bagi pembaca dengan menggunakan jumlah kata seseikit mungkin.

Tujuan abstrak pada dasarnya adalah menyediakan informasi kepada pembaca untuk mengambil keputusan apakah dia perlu membaca atau tidak keseluruhan isi paper.

Kadang orang menulis abstrak sebagai perluasan dari judul. Abstrak semacam ini hanya meninggalkan pembaca dalam kebingungan, bukan pada pemahaman tentang apa isi paper itu.

Informasi dan interpretasi yang terkandung tetap dalam misteri kecuali pembaca menyediakan cukup waktu untuk membaca keseluruhan isi paper.

Abstrak dibaca 10 sampai kali lebih sering daripada papernya sendiri. Dari puluhan ribu paper yang dipublikasi tiap bulannya, peneliti tidak memiliki cukup waktu untuk membaca keseluruhan isi paper meskipun masih berkaitan dengan bidang pebelitiannya.

Biasanya mereka memilih membaca paper-paper yang berkaitan langsung dengan penelitian yang sedang mereka lakukan. Lebih umum lagi, para peneliti lebih cenderung memilih membaca paper-paper yang ditulis oleh orang-orang terkenal karena ada semacam keyakinan bahwa orang-orang terkenal hanya mempublikasi penelitin-penelitian bermutu yang dapat mengimbas lahirnya bermacam-macam topik penelitan baru.

Walaupun abstrak muncul pertama kali dalam sebuah paper, namun kebanyakan penulis menulis abstrak terakhir kali, yaitu setelah bagian tubuh paper tertulis lengkap.

Abstrak harus merupakan ringkasan jelas tentang masalah, pemecahan dan kesimpulan yang dicapai. Abstrak harus memberikan informasi yang memadai sehingga pembaca bisa menentukan pilihan apakah harus membaca keseluruah isi paper atau tidak perlu membacanya.

Panjang abtrak umumnya antara — kata. Bab 4 Pendahuluan Pendahuluan diorganisasi untuk berpindah dari informasi yang bersifat umum ke spesifik.

Hati-hati, jangan melangkah terlalu jauh saat menulis pendahuluan. Batasi pendahuluan hanya pada hal-hal yang berkaitan langsung dengan studi yang sedang dilakukan.

Kontribusi spesifik yang anda hasilkan. Bagian akhir dari pendahuluan harus memuat pernyataan tujuan dan hipotesis. Hal tersebut merupakan transisi yang baik ke bagian beikutnya.

Contohnya: Our objective was to determine if the relationship between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria is species-specific.

We hypothesized that legumes would grow best when infected by the same rhizobium species that occurs within the field. Menurut Warren D.

Dolphine dari Iowa State University, pendahuluan mendefinisikan subjek dari laporan atau paper. Ia harus mendefinisikan tujuan ilmiah dari riset yang dilakukan dan 6 memberikan pada pembaca latar belakang yang cukup untuk memahami bagian selanjutnya dari laporan atau paper tersebut.

Jawaban dari pertanyaan ini dapat diturunkan dari pengamatan di alam atau dari literature. Jawaban untuk pertanyaan ini dilakukan dengan review literature, memperlihatkan sejarah perkembangan ide termasuk memasukkan konfirmasi, konflik, dan gap di dalam pemahaman yang ada saat ini.

Pendahuluan harus berupa undangan pada pembaca untuk menginvestasikan waktu untuk membacanya. Pendahuluan sering sulit untuk ditulis secara baik.

Pilih 3 — 10 paper yang dapat menjadi latar belakang riset anda dan tulislah sesuatu tentang masing-masing paper tersebut. Usahakan mencari orang yang mengerjakan bidang yang sama untuk memberikan kritik membangun tentang paper anda.

Orang tersebut bisa berupa teman satu lab, pembimbing, senior, atau dari instansi lain. Bagian paling penting dari pendahuluan diletakkan di tengah.

Itu adalah klaim. Klaim adalah tempat di mana anda mengatakan bahwa pekerjaan anda merupakan penyempurnaan yang bermanfaat dari paper yang baru saja anda review.

Anda harus membuat suatu kontribusi baru bagi ilmu pengetahuan yang ada sekarang. Bagian lain dari pendahuluan adalah agenda. Bagian ini umumnya ditemukan di bagian akhir pendahuluan.

Ini meringkas apa yang ingin anda tunjukan pada pembaca. Dalam agenda anda harus menyebutkan bagaimana alur paper anda untuk membuktikan klaim anda.

Dalam hal ini agenda anda harus mengklarifikasi klaim anda. Namun agenda tidak sepenting review atau klaim. Jika anda bisa mengungkapkan kesimpulan anda dalam pernyataan sederhana, tulislah pernyaan tersebut setelah agenda.

Tentu saja anda menginginkan orang lain membaca juga bagian paper anda selain pendahuluan.

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